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08-07-2024 | Brain Tumor | Invited Review Article

Endoscopic and exoscopic surgery for brain tumors

Authors: Yasuo Sasagawa, Shingo Tanaka, Masashi Kinoshita, Mitsutoshi Nakada

Published in: International Journal of Clinical Oncology

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Abstract

Nerves and blood vessels must be protected during brain tumor surgery, which has traditionally relied on microscopes. In the 2000s, endoscopes and related equipment were developed for neurosurgery. In this review, we aim to outline the role of endoscopes in brain tumor surgery and discuss the emerging use of exoscopes. The primary use of endoscopes in brain tumor surgery is in endoscopic endonasal surgery for pituitary tumors. By using the space within the sphenoid sinus, surgeons can insert an endoscope and instruments such as forceps or scissors through the nose to access and remove the tumor. Compared to microscopes, endoscopes can get closer to tumors, nerves, and blood vessels. They enable wide-angle observation of the skull base, making them valuable for skull base tumors as well as pituitary tumors. Endoscopes are also used in cases where a brain tumor is associated with hydrocephalus, allowing surgeons to correct obstructive hydrocephalus and perform tumor biopsies simultaneously. Exoscopy, a newer technique introduced in recent years, involves surgeons wearing special glasses and removing the tumor while viewing a three-dimensional monitor. This approach reduces surgeon fatigue and allows for more natural positioning during lengthy brain tumor surgeries. Future brain tumor surgeries will likely involve robotic surgery, which is already used for other organs. This is expected to make brain tumor removal safer and more accurate.
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Metadata
Title
Endoscopic and exoscopic surgery for brain tumors
Authors
Yasuo Sasagawa
Shingo Tanaka
Masashi Kinoshita
Mitsutoshi Nakada
Publication date
08-07-2024
Publisher
Springer Nature Singapore
Published in
International Journal of Clinical Oncology
Print ISSN: 1341-9625
Electronic ISSN: 1437-7772
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10147-024-02529-9