Skip to main content
Top

09-05-2024 | Botulinum Toxin | Review

Botulinum Toxin-A Infiltration to Control Post-Operative Pain after Mastectomy and Expander Reconstruction as Potentially Useful Tool: A Narrative Review

Authors: Giuseppe Andrea Ferraro, Sara Mattiello, Arcangelo Natriello, Giuseppe Lanzano, Giovanni Francesco Nicoletti

Published in: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

Login to get access

Abstract

Abstract

Botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A), a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, was assessed for relieving implant-related pectoralis major muscle’s painful spasms. In detail, 100 units of BTX-A can reduce muscle activity and, as a consequence, muscle spasms. The latter is considered the leading cause of post-operative pain after the sub-pectoral tissue expansion, sometimes leading to early expanders’ removal. In addition, women choosing post-mastectomy reconstruction surgery seem to suffer worse post-operative pain than those who stop at the mastectomy stage. However, there is no unanimous consensus concerning the potential benefits of BTX-A in reducing pain related to the sub-pectoral placement of tissue expanders in breast reconstruction due to the exiguity of evidence. Therefore, this review aims to describe BTX-A-related evidence in this reconstruction setting.

No Level Assigned

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each submission to which Evidence-Based Medicine rankings are applicable. This excludes Review Articles, Book Reviews, and manuscripts that concern Basic Science, Animal Studies, Cadaver Studies, and Experimental Studies. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.​springer.​com/​00266.
Literature
1.
go back to reference Tao Z, Shi A, Lu C, Song T, Zhang Z, Zhao J (2015) Breast cancer: epidemiology and etiology. Cell Biochem Biophys 72:333–338PubMedCrossRef Tao Z, Shi A, Lu C, Song T, Zhang Z, Zhao J (2015) Breast cancer: epidemiology and etiology. Cell Biochem Biophys 72:333–338PubMedCrossRef
2.
go back to reference Cardoso F, Kyriakides S, Ohno S, Penault-Llorca F, Poortmans P, Rubio IT, Zackrisson S, Senkus E (2019) ESMO guidelines committee (2019) early breast cancer: ESMO clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol Off J Eur Soc Med Oncol 30:1194–1220CrossRef Cardoso F, Kyriakides S, Ohno S, Penault-Llorca F, Poortmans P, Rubio IT, Zackrisson S, Senkus E (2019) ESMO guidelines committee (2019) early breast cancer: ESMO clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol Off J Eur Soc Med Oncol 30:1194–1220CrossRef
3.
go back to reference Cardoso F, Paluch-Shimon S, Senkus E, Curigliano G, Aapro MS, André F, Barrios CH, Bergh J, Bhattacharyya GS, Biganzoli L, Boyle F, Cardoso MJ, Carey LA, Cortés J, El Saghir NS, Elzayat M, Eniu A, Fallowfield L, Francis PA, Gelmon K, Gligorov J, Haidinger R, Harbeck N, Hu X, Kaufman B, Kaur R, Kiely BE, Kim SB, Lin NU, Mertz SA, Neciosup S, Offersen BV, Ohno S, Pagani O, Prat A, Penault-Llorca F, Rugo HS, Sledge GW, Thomssen C, Vorobiof DA, Wiseman T, Xu B, Norton L, Costa A, Winer EP (2020) 5th ESO-ESMO international consensus guidelines for advanced breast cancer (ABC 5). Ann Oncol Off J Eur Soc Med Oncol 31:1623–1649CrossRef Cardoso F, Paluch-Shimon S, Senkus E, Curigliano G, Aapro MS, André F, Barrios CH, Bergh J, Bhattacharyya GS, Biganzoli L, Boyle F, Cardoso MJ, Carey LA, Cortés J, El Saghir NS, Elzayat M, Eniu A, Fallowfield L, Francis PA, Gelmon K, Gligorov J, Haidinger R, Harbeck N, Hu X, Kaufman B, Kaur R, Kiely BE, Kim SB, Lin NU, Mertz SA, Neciosup S, Offersen BV, Ohno S, Pagani O, Prat A, Penault-Llorca F, Rugo HS, Sledge GW, Thomssen C, Vorobiof DA, Wiseman T, Xu B, Norton L, Costa A, Winer EP (2020) 5th ESO-ESMO international consensus guidelines for advanced breast cancer (ABC 5). Ann Oncol Off J Eur Soc Med Oncol 31:1623–1649CrossRef
4.
go back to reference American Society of Plastic Surgeons (2013) Plastic surgery statistics report American Society of Plastic Surgeons (2013) Plastic surgery statistics report
5.
go back to reference Grella R, D’Andrea F, Nicoletti GF, Lanzano G (2022) Tuberous breast management: a review of literature and novel technique refinements. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 10:e4708PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Grella R, D’Andrea F, Nicoletti GF, Lanzano G (2022) Tuberous breast management: a review of literature and novel technique refinements. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 10:e4708PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
6.
go back to reference Radovan C (1982) Breast reconstruction after mastectomy using the temporary expander. Plast Reconstr Surg 69:195–208PubMedCrossRef Radovan C (1982) Breast reconstruction after mastectomy using the temporary expander. Plast Reconstr Surg 69:195–208PubMedCrossRef
7.
go back to reference Ferraro GA, Lanzano G, Gentile C, Izzo S, Grella E, Gubitosi A, Nicoletti GF (2021) The «Five-flap» technique for nipple-areola complex reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 9:e3917PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Ferraro GA, Lanzano G, Gentile C, Izzo S, Grella E, Gubitosi A, Nicoletti GF (2021) The «Five-flap» technique for nipple-areola complex reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 9:e3917PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
8.
go back to reference Disa JJ, Ad-El DD, Cohen SM, Cordeiro PG, Hidalgo DA (1999) The premature removal of tissue expanders in breast reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg 104:1662–1665PubMedCrossRef Disa JJ, Ad-El DD, Cohen SM, Cordeiro PG, Hidalgo DA (1999) The premature removal of tissue expanders in breast reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg 104:1662–1665PubMedCrossRef
9.
go back to reference Pusic AL, Cordeiro PG (2003) An accelerated approach to tissue expansion for breast reconstruction: experience with intraoperative and rapid postoperative expansion in 370 reconstructions. Plast Reconstr Surg 111:1871–1875PubMedCrossRef Pusic AL, Cordeiro PG (2003) An accelerated approach to tissue expansion for breast reconstruction: experience with intraoperative and rapid postoperative expansion in 370 reconstructions. Plast Reconstr Surg 111:1871–1875PubMedCrossRef
10.
go back to reference Rimareix F, Masson J, Couturaud B, Revol M, Servant JM (1999) Breast reconstruction by inflatable anatomical implant. Retrospective study of 65 cases. Ann Chir Plast Esthet 44:239–245PubMed Rimareix F, Masson J, Couturaud B, Revol M, Servant JM (1999) Breast reconstruction by inflatable anatomical implant. Retrospective study of 65 cases. Ann Chir Plast Esthet 44:239–245PubMed
11.
go back to reference Ferraro GA, Lanzano G, Grella E, Gubitosi A, Nicoletti GF (2022) Successful treatment of wound dehiscence by innovative type 1 collagen flowable gel: a case report. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 10:e4360PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Ferraro GA, Lanzano G, Grella E, Gubitosi A, Nicoletti GF (2022) Successful treatment of wound dehiscence by innovative type 1 collagen flowable gel: a case report. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 10:e4360PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
12.
go back to reference Dassoulas KR, Wang J, Thuman J, Ndem I, Schaeffer C, Stovall M, Tilt A, Lee A, Lin KY, Campbell CA (2018) Reducing infection rates in implant-based breast reconstruction: impact of an evidence-based protocol. Ann Plast Surg 80:493–499PubMedCrossRef Dassoulas KR, Wang J, Thuman J, Ndem I, Schaeffer C, Stovall M, Tilt A, Lee A, Lin KY, Campbell CA (2018) Reducing infection rates in implant-based breast reconstruction: impact of an evidence-based protocol. Ann Plast Surg 80:493–499PubMedCrossRef
13.
go back to reference Fischer JP, Wes AM, Nelson JA, Basta M, Rohrbach JI, Wu LC, Serletti JM, Kovach SJ (2014) Propensity-matched, longitudinal outcomes analysis of complications and cost: comparing abdominal free flaps and implant-based breast reconstruction. J Am Coll Surg 219:303–312PubMedCrossRef Fischer JP, Wes AM, Nelson JA, Basta M, Rohrbach JI, Wu LC, Serletti JM, Kovach SJ (2014) Propensity-matched, longitudinal outcomes analysis of complications and cost: comparing abdominal free flaps and implant-based breast reconstruction. J Am Coll Surg 219:303–312PubMedCrossRef
14.
go back to reference Malahias M, Jordan DJ, Hughes LC, Hindocha S, Juma A (2016) A literature review and summary of capsular contracture: an ongoing challenge to breast surgeons and their patients. Int J Surg Open. 3:1–7CrossRef Malahias M, Jordan DJ, Hughes LC, Hindocha S, Juma A (2016) A literature review and summary of capsular contracture: an ongoing challenge to breast surgeons and their patients. Int J Surg Open. 3:1–7CrossRef
15.
go back to reference Legeby M, Segerdahl M, Sandelin K, Wickman M, Östman K, Olofsson Ch (2002) Immediate reconstruction in breast cancer surgery requires intensive post-operative pain treatment but the effects of axillary dissection may be more predictive of chronic pain. The Breast 11:156–162PubMedCrossRef Legeby M, Segerdahl M, Sandelin K, Wickman M, Östman K, Olofsson Ch (2002) Immediate reconstruction in breast cancer surgery requires intensive post-operative pain treatment but the effects of axillary dissection may be more predictive of chronic pain. The Breast 11:156–162PubMedCrossRef
16.
go back to reference May JW, Bucky LP, Sohoni S, Ehrlich HP (1994) Smooth versus textured expander implants: a double-blind study of capsule quality and discomfort in simultaneous bilateral breast reconstruction patients. Ann Plast Surg 32:225–32PubMedCrossRef May JW, Bucky LP, Sohoni S, Ehrlich HP (1994) Smooth versus textured expander implants: a double-blind study of capsule quality and discomfort in simultaneous bilateral breast reconstruction patients. Ann Plast Surg 32:225–32PubMedCrossRef
17.
go back to reference Raposio E, Santi PL (1999) Topical application of DMSO as an adjunct to tissue expansion for breast reconstruction. Br J Plast Surg 52:194–197PubMedCrossRef Raposio E, Santi PL (1999) Topical application of DMSO as an adjunct to tissue expansion for breast reconstruction. Br J Plast Surg 52:194–197PubMedCrossRef
18.
go back to reference Sinow JD, Cunningham BL (1992) Intraluminal lidocaine for analgesia after tissue expansion: a double-blind prospective trial in breast reconstruction. Ann Plast Surg 28:320–325PubMedCrossRef Sinow JD, Cunningham BL (1992) Intraluminal lidocaine for analgesia after tissue expansion: a double-blind prospective trial in breast reconstruction. Ann Plast Surg 28:320–325PubMedCrossRef
19.
go back to reference Turan Z, Sandelin K (2006) Local infiltration of anaesthesia with subpectoral indwelling catheters after immediate breast reconstruction with implants: a pilot study. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg 40:136–139PubMedCrossRef Turan Z, Sandelin K (2006) Local infiltration of anaesthesia with subpectoral indwelling catheters after immediate breast reconstruction with implants: a pilot study. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg 40:136–139PubMedCrossRef
20.
go back to reference Lanzano G, Faenza M, Lanzano G, Izzo S, Ferraro GA, Nicoletti GF (2022) Absorbable Vs. non-absorbable sutures in plastic and dermatologic surgery procedures during the covid-19 pandemic: which would you prefer? J Cutan Aesthetic Surg. 15:202–203CrossRef Lanzano G, Faenza M, Lanzano G, Izzo S, Ferraro GA, Nicoletti GF (2022) Absorbable Vs. non-absorbable sutures in plastic and dermatologic surgery procedures during the covid-19 pandemic: which would you prefer? J Cutan Aesthetic Surg. 15:202–203CrossRef
21.
go back to reference Li T, Liu Y, Zhang W (2018) Botulinum toxin a plays an important role in the placement of implants deep within the pectoralis major muscle for mammaplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Aesthetic Plast Surg 42:1519–1530PubMedCrossRef Li T, Liu Y, Zhang W (2018) Botulinum toxin a plays an important role in the placement of implants deep within the pectoralis major muscle for mammaplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Aesthetic Plast Surg 42:1519–1530PubMedCrossRef
22.
go back to reference Boon AJ, Smith J, Dahm DL, Sorenson EJ, Larson DR, Fitz-Gibbon PD, Dykstra DD, Singh JA (2010) Efficacy of intra-articular botulinum toxin type A in painful knee osteoarthritis: a pilot study. PM R 2:268–76PubMedCrossRef Boon AJ, Smith J, Dahm DL, Sorenson EJ, Larson DR, Fitz-Gibbon PD, Dykstra DD, Singh JA (2010) Efficacy of intra-articular botulinum toxin type A in painful knee osteoarthritis: a pilot study. PM R 2:268–76PubMedCrossRef
23.
go back to reference Singh JA, Fitzgerald PM (2010) Botulinum toxin for shoulder pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 9:CD008271 Singh JA, Fitzgerald PM (2010) Botulinum toxin for shoulder pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 9:CD008271
24.
go back to reference Abbott J (2009) Gynecological indications for the use of botulinum toxin in women with chronic pelvic pain. Toxicon Off J Int Soc Toxinol 54:647–653CrossRef Abbott J (2009) Gynecological indications for the use of botulinum toxin in women with chronic pelvic pain. Toxicon Off J Int Soc Toxinol 54:647–653CrossRef
25.
go back to reference Guyuron B, Reed D, Kriegler JS, Davis J, Pashmini N, Amini S (2009) A placebo-controlled surgical trial of the treatment of migraine headaches. Plast Reconstr Surg 124:461–468PubMedCrossRef Guyuron B, Reed D, Kriegler JS, Davis J, Pashmini N, Amini S (2009) A placebo-controlled surgical trial of the treatment of migraine headaches. Plast Reconstr Surg 124:461–468PubMedCrossRef
26.
go back to reference Babcock MS, Foster L, Pasquina P, Jabbari B (2005) Treatment of pain attributed to plantar fasciitis with botulinum toxin a: a short-term, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 84:649–654PubMedCrossRef Babcock MS, Foster L, Pasquina P, Jabbari B (2005) Treatment of pain attributed to plantar fasciitis with botulinum toxin a: a short-term, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 84:649–654PubMedCrossRef
27.
go back to reference Wong SM, Hui ACF, Tong PY, Poon DWF, Yu E, Wong LKS (2005) Treatment of lateral epicondylitis with botulinum toxin: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 143:793–797PubMedCrossRef Wong SM, Hui ACF, Tong PY, Poon DWF, Yu E, Wong LKS (2005) Treatment of lateral epicondylitis with botulinum toxin: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 143:793–797PubMedCrossRef
28.
go back to reference Schwartz MS, Wren DR, Filshie J (1998) Neuromyotonia in a muscle flap producing a convulsing breast: successful treatment with botulinum toxin. Mov Disord Off J Mov Disord Soc. 13:188–190CrossRef Schwartz MS, Wren DR, Filshie J (1998) Neuromyotonia in a muscle flap producing a convulsing breast: successful treatment with botulinum toxin. Mov Disord Off J Mov Disord Soc. 13:188–190CrossRef
29.
30.
go back to reference Figus A, Mazzocchi M, Dessy LA, Curinga G, Scuderi N (2009) Treatment of muscular contraction deformities with botulinum toxin type A after latissimus dorsi flap and sub-pectoral implant breast reconstruction. J Plast Reconstr Aesthetic Surg JPRAS. 62:869–75PubMedCrossRef Figus A, Mazzocchi M, Dessy LA, Curinga G, Scuderi N (2009) Treatment of muscular contraction deformities with botulinum toxin type A after latissimus dorsi flap and sub-pectoral implant breast reconstruction. J Plast Reconstr Aesthetic Surg JPRAS. 62:869–75PubMedCrossRef
31.
go back to reference Richards A, Ritz M, Donahoe S, Southwick G (2001) Botox for contraction of pectoral muscles. Plast Reconstr Surg 108:270–271PubMedCrossRef Richards A, Ritz M, Donahoe S, Southwick G (2001) Botox for contraction of pectoral muscles. Plast Reconstr Surg 108:270–271PubMedCrossRef
32.
go back to reference Senior MA, Fourie LR (2000) Botox and the management of pectoral spasm after subpectoral implant insertion. Plast Reconstr Surg 106:224–225PubMedCrossRef Senior MA, Fourie LR (2000) Botox and the management of pectoral spasm after subpectoral implant insertion. Plast Reconstr Surg 106:224–225PubMedCrossRef
33.
go back to reference Smith TJ, Hill KK, Raphael BH (2005) Historical and current perspectives on Clostridium botulinum diversity. Res Microbiol 166:290–302CrossRef Smith TJ, Hill KK, Raphael BH (2005) Historical and current perspectives on Clostridium botulinum diversity. Res Microbiol 166:290–302CrossRef
34.
go back to reference Rossetto O, Pirazzini M, Montecucco C (2014) Botulinum neurotoxins: genetic, structural and mechanistic insights. Nat Rev Microbiol 12:535–549PubMedCrossRef Rossetto O, Pirazzini M, Montecucco C (2014) Botulinum neurotoxins: genetic, structural and mechanistic insights. Nat Rev Microbiol 12:535–549PubMedCrossRef
35.
go back to reference Rummel A (2015) The long journey of botulinum neurotoxins into the synapse. Toxicon Off J Int Soc Toxinol 107:9–24CrossRef Rummel A (2015) The long journey of botulinum neurotoxins into the synapse. Toxicon Off J Int Soc Toxinol 107:9–24CrossRef
36.
go back to reference Jankovic J (1994) Botulinum toxin in the treatment of dystonic tics. Mov Disord Off J Mov Disord Soc. 9:347–349CrossRef Jankovic J (1994) Botulinum toxin in the treatment of dystonic tics. Mov Disord Off J Mov Disord Soc. 9:347–349CrossRef
37.
go back to reference Albanese A, Lalli S (2009) Is this dystonia? Mov Disord Off J Mov Disord Soc. 24:1725–1731CrossRef Albanese A, Lalli S (2009) Is this dystonia? Mov Disord Off J Mov Disord Soc. 24:1725–1731CrossRef
39.
go back to reference Jackson JL, Kuriyama A, Hayashino Y (2012) Botulinum toxin A for prophylactic treatment of migraine and tension headaches in adults: a meta-analysis. JAMA 307:1736–45PubMedCrossRef Jackson JL, Kuriyama A, Hayashino Y (2012) Botulinum toxin A for prophylactic treatment of migraine and tension headaches in adults: a meta-analysis. JAMA 307:1736–45PubMedCrossRef
40.
go back to reference Buonocore M, Demartini L, Mandrini S, Dall’Angelo A, Dalla Toffola E (2017) Effect of botulinum toxin on disabling neuropathic pain: a case presentation suggesting a new therapeutic strategy. PM R. 9:200–3PubMedCrossRef Buonocore M, Demartini L, Mandrini S, Dall’Angelo A, Dalla Toffola E (2017) Effect of botulinum toxin on disabling neuropathic pain: a case presentation suggesting a new therapeutic strategy. PM R. 9:200–3PubMedCrossRef
41.
go back to reference Guo Y, Lu Y, Liu T, Zhou Y, Yang P, Zhu J, Chen L, Yang Q (2015) Efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of glabellar lines: a meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials. Plast Reconstr Surg 136:310e-e318PubMedCrossRef Guo Y, Lu Y, Liu T, Zhou Y, Yang P, Zhu J, Chen L, Yang Q (2015) Efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of glabellar lines: a meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials. Plast Reconstr Surg 136:310e-e318PubMedCrossRef
42.
go back to reference Veronesi P, Ballardini B, De Lorenzi F, Magnoni F, Lissidini G, Caldarella P, Galimberti V (2011) Immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy. Breast Edinb Scotl 20(Suppl 3):S104-107CrossRef Veronesi P, Ballardini B, De Lorenzi F, Magnoni F, Lissidini G, Caldarella P, Galimberti V (2011) Immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy. Breast Edinb Scotl 20(Suppl 3):S104-107CrossRef
43.
go back to reference Ward J, Cohen IK, Knaysi GA, Brown PW (1987) Immediate breast reconstruction with tissue expansion. Plast Reconstr Surg 80:559–566PubMedCrossRef Ward J, Cohen IK, Knaysi GA, Brown PW (1987) Immediate breast reconstruction with tissue expansion. Plast Reconstr Surg 80:559–566PubMedCrossRef
44.
go back to reference Scott AB (1980) Botulinum toxin injection into extraocular muscles as an alternative to strabismus surgery. Ophthalmology 87:1044–1049PubMedCrossRef Scott AB (1980) Botulinum toxin injection into extraocular muscles as an alternative to strabismus surgery. Ophthalmology 87:1044–1049PubMedCrossRef
47.
go back to reference Layeeque R, Hochberg J, Siegel E, Kunkel K, Kepple J, Henry-Tillman RS, Dunlap M, Seibert J, Klimberg VS (2004) Botulinum toxin infiltration for pain control after mastectomy and expander reconstruction. Ann Surg 240:608–13PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Layeeque R, Hochberg J, Siegel E, Kunkel K, Kepple J, Henry-Tillman RS, Dunlap M, Seibert J, Klimberg VS (2004) Botulinum toxin infiltration for pain control after mastectomy and expander reconstruction. Ann Surg 240:608–13PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
48.
go back to reference Gabriel A, Champaneria MC, Maxwell GP (2015) The efficacy of botulinum toxin A in post- mastectomy breast reconstruction: a pilot study. Aesthet Surg J 35:402–409PubMedCrossRef Gabriel A, Champaneria MC, Maxwell GP (2015) The efficacy of botulinum toxin A in post- mastectomy breast reconstruction: a pilot study. Aesthet Surg J 35:402–409PubMedCrossRef
49.
go back to reference O’Donnell CJ (2011) Pectoral muscle spasms after mastectomy successfully treated with botulinum toxin injections. PM R 3:781–782PubMedCrossRef O’Donnell CJ (2011) Pectoral muscle spasms after mastectomy successfully treated with botulinum toxin injections. PM R 3:781–782PubMedCrossRef
50.
go back to reference Lo KK, Aycock JK (2015) A blinded randomized controlled trial to evaluate the use of botulinum toxin for pain control in breast reconstruction with tissue expanders. Ann Plast Surg 74:281–283PubMedCrossRef Lo KK, Aycock JK (2015) A blinded randomized controlled trial to evaluate the use of botulinum toxin for pain control in breast reconstruction with tissue expanders. Ann Plast Surg 74:281–283PubMedCrossRef
51.
go back to reference Lemaine V, Lohse CM, Mandrekar JN, Ramaker SA, Convery PA, Nguyen MD, Tran NV (2020) Botulinum toxin a in tissue expander breast reconstruction: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 8:e3030PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Lemaine V, Lohse CM, Mandrekar JN, Ramaker SA, Convery PA, Nguyen MD, Tran NV (2020) Botulinum toxin a in tissue expander breast reconstruction: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 8:e3030PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
52.
go back to reference Winocour S, Murad MH, Bidgoli-Moghaddam M, Jacobson SR, Bite U, Saint-Cyr M, Tran NV, Lemaine V (2014) A systematic review of the use of Botulinum toxin type A with subpectoral breast implants. J Plast Reconstr Aesthetic Surg JPRAS. 67:34–41CrossRef Winocour S, Murad MH, Bidgoli-Moghaddam M, Jacobson SR, Bite U, Saint-Cyr M, Tran NV, Lemaine V (2014) A systematic review of the use of Botulinum toxin type A with subpectoral breast implants. J Plast Reconstr Aesthetic Surg JPRAS. 67:34–41CrossRef
Metadata
Title
Botulinum Toxin-A Infiltration to Control Post-Operative Pain after Mastectomy and Expander Reconstruction as Potentially Useful Tool: A Narrative Review
Authors
Giuseppe Andrea Ferraro
Sara Mattiello
Arcangelo Natriello
Giuseppe Lanzano
Giovanni Francesco Nicoletti
Publication date
09-05-2024
Publisher
Springer US
Published in
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Print ISSN: 0364-216X
Electronic ISSN: 1432-5241
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00266-024-04034-w