Whether blood volume (BV) primarily determines the synchronous nature of the myocardium remains unknown. This study determined the impact of standard blood withdrawal on left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony (LVMD) in women.
Transthoracic speckle-tracking echocardiography and central hemodynamic measurements were performed at rest and during moderate- to high-intensity exercise in healthy women (n = 24, age = 53.6 ± 16.3 year). LVMD was determined via the time to peak standard deviation (TPSD) of longitudinal and transverse strain and strain rates (LSR, TSR). Measurements were repeated within a week period immediately after a 10% reduction of BV.
With intact BV, all individuals presented cardiac structure and function variables within normative values of the study population. Blood withdrawal decreased BV (5.3 ± 0.7 L) by 0.5 ± 0.1 L. Resting left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume (− 8%, P = 0.040) and passive filling (− 16%, P = 0.001) were reduced after blood withdrawal. No effect of blood withdrawal was observed for any measure of LVMD at rest (P ≥ 0.225). During exercise at a fixed submaximal workload (100 W), LVMD of myocardial longitudinal strain (LS TPSD) was increased after blood withdrawal (36%, P = 0.047). At peak effort, blood withdrawal led to increased LVMD of myocardial transverse strain rate (TSR TPSD) (31%, P = 0.002). The effect of blood withdrawal on TSR TPSD at peak effort was associated with LV concentric remodeling (r = 0.59, P = 0.003).
Marked impairments in the mechanical synchrony of the myocardium are elicited by moderate blood withdrawal in healthy women during moderate and high intensity exercise.