Skip to main content
Top

25-04-2024 | Original Article

Assessment of injuries patterns produced by a 9mm P.A.K “rubber ball” blank firing weapon: porcine model

Authors: Nicolas Castillo Moreno, Juan Pablo Zambrano, Luis Felipe Dorado, Ana Inés Ricaurte

Published in: International Journal of Legal Medicine

Login to get access

Abstract

The use of less lethal weapons aims to mitigate civilian casualties caused by firearm use. However, due to numerous cases in which these weapons caused serious injuries, even lethal injuries, both legislation and the forensic field are interested in characterizing and regulating them better. In the forensic field, there is a lack of strong research about injury patterns of these weapons which makes it difficult to identify the type of weapon employed. In this study, the main objective was to characterize the injury pattern produced by the impact of the 9 mm P.A.K. projectile. A porcine model was used. Four different distances were studied: firm contact, 10 cm, 60 cm and 110 cm, using 3 of the more representative anatomical sites: the head, the hind leg and the ribs. The average measurement of the entrance orifice varied according to the anatomical site, being 6.67 mm wide and 6.25 mm long in the thorax, 7.3 mm wide and 8.8 mm long in the hind legs, and 7.62 mm wide and 7.54 mm long in the head. The variation in width and length measurements was not found to be directly related to the shot distance. The gunshot residues had similar characteristics to those of conventional lead projectiles, however there was more unburned powder deposit near the wounds, with a less dense soot and more dense powder tattoo. Depth varied widely regardless of tissue and firing distance, although loss of penetrating power and injury is observed as one moves away from the target.
Appendix
Available only for authorised users
Literature
1.
go back to reference Geneva, Academy (2018) Geneva guidelines on Less-Lethal weapons and Related Equipment in Law Enforcement. Text for consultation Geneva, Academy (2018) Geneva guidelines on Less-Lethal weapons and Related Equipment in Law Enforcement. Text for consultation
Metadata
Title
Assessment of injuries patterns produced by a 9mm P.A.K “rubber ball” blank firing weapon: porcine model
Authors
Nicolas Castillo Moreno
Juan Pablo Zambrano
Luis Felipe Dorado
Ana Inés Ricaurte
Publication date
25-04-2024
Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Published in
International Journal of Legal Medicine
Print ISSN: 0937-9827
Electronic ISSN: 1437-1596
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00414-024-03238-8