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Open Access 08-06-2024 | Substantive Review

Assessing Structural Racism and Discrimination Along the Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Continuum: A Systematic Review

Authors: Sara Seyedroudbari, Fatemeh Ghadimi, Gabriela Grady, Obinna Uzosike, Hervette Nkwihoreze, John B. Jemmott III, Florence Momplaisir

Published in: AIDS and Behavior

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Abstract

Structural racism and discrimination (SRD) is deeply embedded across U.S. healthcare institutions, but its impact on health outcomes is challenging to assess. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to understand the impact of SRD on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) care continuum outcomes across U.S. populations who could benefit from HIV prevention. Guided by PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a systematic review of the published literature up to September 2023 using PubMed and PsycInfo and included peer-reviewed articles meeting inclusion criteria. At least two authors independently screened studies, performed quality assessments, and abstracted data relevant to the topic. Exposure variables included race/ethnicity and any level of SRD (interpersonal, intra- and extra-organizational SRD). Outcomes consisted of any steps of the PrEP care continuum. A total of 66 studies met inclusion criteria and demonstrated the negative impact of SRD on the PrEP care continuum. At the interpersonal level, medical mistrust (i.e., lack of trust in medical organizations and professionals rooted from current or historical practices of discrimination) was negatively associated with almost all the steps across the PrEP care continuum: individuals with medical mistrust were less likely to have PrEP knowledge, adhere to PrEP care, and be retained in care. At the intra-organizational level, PrEP prescription was lower for Black patients due to healthcare provider perception of higher sex-risk behaviors. At the extra-organizational level, factors such as homelessness, low socioeconomic status, and incarceration were associated with decreased PrEP uptake. On the other hand, healthcare provider trust, higher patient education, and access to health insurance were associated with increased PrEP use and retention in care. In addition, analyses using race/ethnicity as an exposure did not consistently show associations with PrEP continuum outcomes. We found that SRD has a negative impact at all steps of the PrEP care continuum. Our results suggest that when assessing the effects of race/ethnicity without the context of SRD, certain relationships and associations are missed. Addressing multi-level barriers related to SRD are needed to reduce HIV transmission and promote health equity.
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Metadata
Title
Assessing Structural Racism and Discrimination Along the Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Continuum: A Systematic Review
Authors
Sara Seyedroudbari
Fatemeh Ghadimi
Gabriela Grady
Obinna Uzosike
Hervette Nkwihoreze
John B. Jemmott III
Florence Momplaisir
Publication date
08-06-2024
Publisher
Springer US
Published in
AIDS and Behavior
Print ISSN: 1090-7165
Electronic ISSN: 1573-3254
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-024-04387-y
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