This study aimed to optimize cement application techniques in fully cemented primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) by comparing the effects of two different approaches: cement on bone surface (CoB) versus cement on bone surface and implant surface (CoBaI) on the short-term presence of radiolucent lines (RLL) as indicators of potential complications.
In this monocentric study, a total of 379 fully cemented primary TKAs (318 patients) were included. The two study groups were differentiated by the technique of cement application: CoB group (cement applied only on bone surface) and CoBaI group (cement applied on both bone surface and implant surface). The presence of RLL or osteolysis was evaluated using the updated Knee Society Radiographic Evaluation System.
In the whole study population, RLL were present in 4.7% of cases, with a significantly higher incidence in the CoBaI group (10.5%) at the 4-week follow-up. At the 12-month follow-up, RLL were observed in 29.8% of TKAs in the CoBaI group, while the incidence was lower in the CoB group (24.0%) (not statistically significant). There were two revisions in each group, none of which were due to aseptic loosening.
The findings of this study suggest that the application of bone cement on bone surface only (CoB) may be more beneficial than applying it on both bone surface and implant surface (CoBaI) in terms of short-term presence of RLL in fully cemented primary TKA. Long-term results, especially with regard to aseptic loosening, will be of interest and may provide valuable guidance for future directions in bone cement applications in TKA.