Many studies have described the muscle anatomy of the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus), a commonly used animal in developmental experiments. However, some major differences in terminology existed among studies, making it difficult to precisely discuss the muscle homologies between domestic fowl and other animals. In this study, the innervations of shoulder girdle muscles in five sides of the domestic fowl were elucidated and the homology of the shoulder girdle muscles between domestic fowl and other tetrapods was discussed using terminology that conforms to Nomina Anatomica Avium (1993). Unlike previous descriptions, the supracoracoideus, being developed in domestic fowl, is thought to have a different muscular origin from the deltoid muscle. The coracobrachialis cranialis, coracobrachialis caudalis and coracobrachialis muscles, previously described as the coracobrachialis muscle group, had different innervations; the coracobrachialis cranialis should be grouped with the deltoid muscles, and the coracobrachialis caudalis appears to belong to the pectoral muscle group. I propose that the subcoracoscapularis in domestic fowl, keeping the reptilian form, is divided into the subcoracoideus and subscapularis muscles. Based on the innervation, the subscapularis in domestic fowl is homologous with the subscapularis in reptiles and a major part of the subscapularis in mammals. Unlike the descriptions in previous studies, the scapulohumeralis cranialis and caudalis in the domestic fowl in this study, being innervated by the common branch, were found to have a close relationship with the subcoracoscapularis muscle. Based on the observations in this study, a new classification of the shoulder girdle muscles in domestic fowl is proposed.